The microphone has become one of the most important tools in today’s world. From the private use to professional use, the appropriate choice of microphone is a must.
There are different kinds of a microphone. One must select the right one for his or her requirement. The most used microphone types are Condenser and Dynamic type.
There is a certain difference between them. The main difference is the transducer. Another point lies in the directionality of the sound capture.
Condenser Type Microphone
A condenser microphone is normally used in Studios. In a music studio, it is mandatory to capture the delicate and higher frequency sounds. It is termed as Capacitor microphone also.
In the case of a capacitor, it is made taking two metals nearby. The closer the metals the more is the capacitance. A condenser microphone is made similarly.
It has a very thin membrane in close to a metal plate. The diaphragm is conductive electrically. It is prepared with gold platted mylar. Some are made with thin foil.
The diaphragm vibrates with the sound wave. In this way the distance between the diaphragm and the metal plate change. In turn, the capacitance also changes.
It directly changes in the synchronization of sound waves. It converts sound energy into electrical energy. But it is very difficult to arrange this whole package of signal in a gadget.
The voltage output of the condenser is very high concerning the current it produces. The energy storage in the made capacitor is also very low. There comes the requirement of the Impedance converter.
This helps the circuitry to buffer between the package and the outside world. This converter makes energy more readable.
Condenser type microphone produces small power in the capsule. That’s why they require additional power.
As the diaphragm of this type of microphone is very thin, it can capture a more delicate sound than any other type available in the market. Therefore the condenser type microphone provides more superior quality sound.
Moreover among all the types, the condenser type has the feature to capture sound in a wide frequency range. It got the best transient response.
Condenser type microphones are more sensitive than the other types. Thereby they offer more accurate sound quality. It also provides lower noise.
But all these features and qualities depend upon the price of the microphone.
Power of the Condenser Microphone
Condenser type microphone requires external power. It is one of the backdrops of this type. Earlier this type of microphone used to come with an additional box of a brick size.
It is very difficult to use this in daily needs. Later with the development of the transistor, the condenser microphone started to come with its power from the mixing box.
Nowadays the condenser microphone started coming to the market with tube technology. Again some microphones offer phantom power.
A dynamic microphone is a modern type of microphone. This type of microphone got its name from its technical nature. It uses dynamic electromagnetism to produce current.
It doesn’t have to do anything with the dynamic range of the sound or use. It is a widely used type. It is very popular due to its all-round performance. The sound of this microphone is very smooth and well rounded.
It can filter the noise from the sound recording making it a popular handy usage.
The working principle can be described as the bicycle dynamo. An electric current is produced if the conductor moves in a magnetic field. This is the main principle.
Therefore, we can say that this type of microphone converts sound into electrical energy through electromagnetism. There are two types of dynamic microphones. They are Ribbon type and Moving Coil.
1. Ribbon Type
Ribbon type uses a ribbon transducer in place of a membrane and a coil. A narrow strip of extremely thin aluminum foil is used in this type of ribbon.
The membrane is the electrical conductor in this type that moves inside the magnetic slit. Such a shrill aluminum ribbon is much sunnier than a membrane with a coil of copper wire.
A ribbon transducer can follow the activities of the sound vibration accurately than a moving coil package.
It has one conductor across the magnetic gap. It does not have a whole coil of wire. Much lower output is produced by this microphone. Step-up transformers are used.
It multiplies the output voltage by 30 factors. This type of microphone has a lower sensitivity. It means that, output level at a given sound pressure level. A very low noise preamp is required with lots of gains.
2. Moving Coil Type
This type of microphone is built in line with a loudspeaker. A coil is attached to the back of the membrane. Around this coil, there is a strong magnet. Sound vibration hits the coil.
Then the membrane vibrates with the rhythm. The movement across the gap creates electromagnetic energy which in turn creates an electric current.
Dynamic microphones can handle sound pressure in a very efficient way. This is very rugged and stable. It provides very good sound quality. The performance of the microphone is very enhancing and all-round.
But this type does not require any external power source to run. Most importantly they are very cheap. This type of microphone is very heavy. Therefore their movement is restricted.
This also has the disadvantage of the slow response of this type of microphone. This type of microphone is not suitable for musical instruments and studio recording.
Dynamic microphones are an excellent sound provider for light use. They are extremely rugged. They can be used for traveling on the road. They are not suitable for recording high-frequency content.
Especially when it comes to recording in a studio it is unsuitable. This type of microphone is very handy and suitable for daily rough use.
There is a lot of different usages of these two types of microphone. Irrespective of the technical working principle, both two types are useful in their respective field.