Damage to a condenser microphone is very rare. The outer shell of modern condenser microphones is made from a hard plastic that withstands a lot of abuse, including being dropped on the ground by a ball. In fact, the exterior shell of a modern condenser microphone should not even be touched by your bare hands! This means that condenser microphones are highly resistant to damage and are great for outdoor usage.
However, despite their resilience, condenser microphones can still suffer damage from certain accidents. If a part on the microphone breaks (not the outer shell) the device can be damaged in the sense that the electrical current that is flowing through the microphone is interrupted. This stops the flow of current and the microphone either stops working altogether or has a very low output. This is an audio-related problem and the most common way to fix this problem is to replace the broken piece of the condenser microphone.
When looking at the damaged piece, it could be difficult to tell whether it is the whole piece that has broken or just a few parts. If the broken piece is not easy to access then it might be a sign of other problems with the unit. For example, the trace connection that connects the battery leads could be frayed and is therefore a hazard. Likewise, if the connection has become damaged then the piece could be too long causing the signal to be cut.
Another common cause of damage to a condenser microphone is when the wire connections break. If this happens, the microphone will not work and will have to be repaired or replaced. Again, this is an electrical related problem and cannot be fixed by simply replacing the part. The best thing to do is to check to see if the two wires that make up the connection between the capacitor and the amplifier are actually broken. This can usually be done with an ohmmeter.
If the above reasons for damage are not enough to convince you then I suggest you look for the other parts of the condenser microphone. The first thing you should notice is if the electrical connection is fine. If there is no electricity running to the microphone then the chances are the capacitor is damaged. Next, if the audio from the speaker or music system sounds good then the capacitor is probably undamaged. The capacitor has the task of storing the DC current produced by the electric motor when the trigger is pressed. If the capacitor is damaged then the DC current produced will probably be different to the audio signal.
Can you damage a condenser microphone? Unfortunately, yes. You will need to replace the cap completely in most cases. In more extreme cases where the damage is only on one side then you will need to desist from using the microphone. However, if all other factors are alright then you should be able to use the microphone as normal.